INFO Warehouse Page 7

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A Vast Amount of Data on this Page

Important Safety Messages can be found here!  Featured and Important Stories from SCAUWG.ORG that remain valuable sources of pertinent content can now be accessed here!

Our INFO Warehouse is designed to be a living reference area where certain previously published HOTNEWS articles and previously published aviation data can be memorialized and referred to, so that the message conveyed can continue to benefit site users.

Do you have comments/suggestions/submissions/opposing positions for this page?  They are   welcomed.  Just drop a message for us at


Preface:           (New Posts begin after Preface)

VECTORS FOR SAFETY LOGOVectors for Safety - a wonderful source for Aviation News, Professional Commentary and Accident Analysis is published monthly by Gene Benson and is now a permanent "Top of the Page" feature of our INFO WAREHOUSE.

To View the Oct. '23 Vectors for Safety CLICK HERE


Selected CHARTING NOTICES              FAA Safety Alerts and Charting Notice List Here.

01/10/2023  - Non-Public Airports Charted on VFR Aeronautical Charts - Effective November 3, 2022 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) aeronautical charts will remove all references to emergency use at private airports. The words “emergency or” shall be deleted from VFR aeronautical chart legends in reference to private airports. Beyond the December 29, 2022 effective date private airports with landmark value will be determined using the criteria below.
-Airport operational status
-Airspace determination
-Length and surface of runway(s)
-Owner’s charting preference
-Satellite imagery
-National Airspace System Resource (NASR) remarks specific to the airport
-Airport significance relative to surrounding chart features
For aeronautical data or charting inquiries visit the Aeronautical Information Portal at

02/22/2023  - Airport Diagrams - Addition of Lighting and Navigational Aids - Starting with the October 5, 2023 publication cycle, AIS will begin phasing in the addition of lighting and NAVAID information beginning with airports already being revised for information currently published on an airport diagram. As each airport diagram receives the lighting and NAVAID information, the airport’s corresponding Chart Supplement sketch will be removed from the Chart Supplement airport entry. The described aeronautical information previously shown on the sketch will be now available on the diagram instead in greater detail.  More info HERE.

03/09/2023 - Foreign Data on Enroute IFR Aeronautical Charts - This notice advises of aeronautical content changes in foreign areas on Enroute IFR Charts anticipated with the June 15, 2023 (or later) effective date. See the notice Here.

07/19/2023 - Changes to Wind Turbine Farms on the VFR Sectional Chart - Effective on or about August 10, 2023, the FAA’s Aeronautical Information Services (AIS) Visual Charting Team will begin implementing charting enhancements to Sectional Aeronautical Charts, VFR Terminal Area Charts, and Helicopter Route Charts to more clearly depict the location of wind turbine farms. This change will also be published in the Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide at

The VFR charting changes will:

  1. Replace the current dashed line border with a zipper border (aviation blue) for easier identification of the boundaries of the wind turbine farm.
  2. Add 45-degree (diagonal) cross-hatching lines within all wind turbine farms for increased conspicuity.
  3. Revise the masked elevation box to include a white background and include the mean sea level (MSL) elevation figure of the highest obstruction (wind turbine rotating blade tip at the 12 o’clock position) within the wind turbine farm. The letters UC are added to depict a wind turbine farm Under Construction.       -  MORE  HERE

Aeronautical Charting Meeting  (Charting Group)

  • The Aeronautical Charting Meeting (ACM) is a public meeting held two times every year. The purpose of the ACM is three-fold:
    • Identify issues concerning safety and usefulness of aeronautical charts and flight information products/services.
    • Discuss and evaluate proposals concerning aeronautical charts and flight information publications, digital aeronautical products, database coding, instrument flight procedures, and instrument flight procedure development, policy, and design.
    • Provide an opportunity for government and interested participants to brief and/or discuss new navigation concepts, terminal instrument procedures (TERPS) policy/criteria changes, and charting specifications and methodologies.

    The Aeronautical Charting Meeting is divided into two groups — the Instrument Procedures Group (IPG) and the Charting Group (CG) See Order 7910.5.

    The CG portion of the ACM includes briefings and discussions on recommendations regarding aeronautical charts and flight information products/services. Please visit the ACM Instrument Procedures Group Web Site for information regarding Instrument Procedure issues.

    The meeting is a facilitated discussion of new and outstanding topics. The status of an open issue will be reported from meeting to meeting until a resolution is reached, at which point the issue will be closed.

  • Aeronautical Charting Meeting (ACM) — Charting Group

    Next Meeting

    The next meeting will be held on October 23-26, 2023 as a virtual meeting. Details will be provided at a later date.

    To be added to the ACM email distribution list, send a message with your contact information to:

    New Recommendation Documents for Upcoming ACM (CG)

    Future Dates and Locations

    • Meeting 23-02 – October 23-26, 2023 – Virtual
    • Meeting 24-01 – April 22-25, 2024 – Virtual

MANUALS You May Need:

MANUALS You May Need:



The Chart Users' Guide is updated when there is new chart symbology or when there are changes in the depiction of information and/or symbols on the charts. It will be published in accordance with the 56-day AIRAC schedule.

Effective Date: 06/15/2023


This Chart Users' Guide is an introduction to the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aeronautical charts and publications. It is useful to new pilots as a learning aid, and to experienced pilots as a quick reference guide



The Aviation MX Human Factors Quarterly is no longer published but was written by maintenance human factors professionals dedicated to identifying and optimizing the factors that affect human performance in maintenance and inspection and is still relevant.


  • September (PDF), Volume 9, Issue 3
  • June (PDF), Volume 9, Issue 2
  • March (PDF), Volume 9, Issue 1



This Page [latest] was added on 08/20/23  -  See Pages  IW 1-6 for Previous Posts  -  Thank You! 

Let's Begin: 

10/02/2023   Decarbonize Aviation? Good Luck To Us - VIDEO With Paul Bertorelli - From AVweb - "With weather disasters lined up like airliners on final to LaGuardia, news on climate change is a constant. And with aviation the most energy-intensive form of mass transportation, it’s in the crosshairs as an emitter of greenhouse gas. In this video, AVweb’s Paul Bertorelli examines the role of electric airplanes and, more importantly, sustainable aviation fuel. Bottom line: Don’t expect miracles." See it Here.

10/01/2023   Ventura VOR VTU - Did you know?  VTU June 15, 23 LA TAC frequency was 108.2 - As of LA TAC  8/10/23 VTU's current frequency is 116.55.

09/29/2023   NASA Releases UFO Study, Appoints Director of UAP Research - From FLYING - "A NASA-commissioned independent study team urged the agency to use everything from high-powered satellites to your cell phone to study UFOs." - Plus a Pentagon sponsored website - Read it Here.

09/29/2023   Complex operating environments, distractions, workforce turnover, and complacency may lead to runway incursions. Comprehensive, site-specific driver training and operational procedures can mitigate these factors. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides best practices and training supplements to support airport operators and airfield drivers while promoting safe operations.

The FAA Website has posted new information on proper phraseology for crossing or proceeding onto runways. Airport operators are encouraged to review the information, share it with airport drivers, and supplement existing driver training programs. 

Information includes:

Information for airport operators and vehicle drivers is available on the FAA website at: 


Birke Rhodes, Manager, Airport Safety and Operations Division, AAS-300, FAA Office of Airports

09/29/2023    SATNAV News Quarterly Newsletter for U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. A new issue is now available. - The 2023 Summer edition of the SatNav News is now available.  Articles included in this issue:

  • WAAS at Twenty
  • 22nd International GBAS Working Group Meeting
  • WAAS is Working for Airports
  • GPS Information
  • and more!

09/29/2023   Stop The Rush - From Aviation Safety Magazine - "Rushing through a task often is cited as an early link in the accident chain, a controllable factor that causes checklists to be missed, briefings to be brushed over and errors to occur. Obviously there is a schedule to keep, which creates inherent pressure to get moving. But by and large, the need to rush simply does not exist. If there is nothing out of the ordinary such as a maintenance issue, weather or late boarding, then it is extremely easy to be ready to go when the time comes. When there is another factor, the expectation is..."  Read More Here.

09/29/2023   NONTOWERED - ORDERLY OPERATIONS KEEP EVERYONE SAFE - From AOPA - "I assuaged their concern by explaining that there are several ways we can ensure safety as we operate to and from a nontowered field. I described how we are always on the lookout for other traffic, and that I would enlist their assistance in that endeavor. Also, that we pilots announce our intentions on the common traffic frequency to coordinate departures and arrivals with other pilots. Finally, I explained that my airplane is equipped with ADS-B so that many of the other airplanes will appear on the panel’s display. With a shared commitment to safety, attention to surroundings, and some common courtesy, general aviation pilots can enjoy the great freedom with which we are blessed."  Good Information Here.

09/28/2023   The following documents were signed by AFX-1 and are published:

  • Order 8000.94B, Procedures for Acceptance or Review of Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (LVO/SMGCS)
  • AC 120-57C, Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (LVO/SMGCS)

09/28/2023   GPS Spoofing Raises Alarms - ALERT From AVweb - "Someone in the Middle East has figured out how to spoof GPS data and it’s playing havoc with aircraft navigation. OPSGROUP, a site used by airline, business and cargo pilots, is reporting that aircraft using Airway UMB688 in northern Iraq are experiencing complete navigation system failures because the hacker replaces the position data beamed by the GPS signals with false coordinates. “[Twelve] separate reports have been now received by OPSGROUP, and in most cases the [Inertial Reference System] becomes unusable, VOR/DME sensor inputs fail, the aircraft UTC clock fails, and the crew have been forced to request vectors from ATC to navigate,” the site reported." Full Story Here.

09/27/2023   White House Announces $201 Million Airport Lighting Upgrade Program - From AVweb - Ontario and LAX Included - "The White House announced today (Sept. 26) that more than $201 million will go to new or reconstructed runway and taxiway lighting systems as part of the administration’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. During an event marking the new program at Denver International Airport, U.S. Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg said, “We’re acting to improve lighting systems at 82 airports, an important part of keeping aircraft moving safely, no matter the time of day or weather.” - Full Story.

09/23/2023   Who’s Who In The Tower - "All pilots should be familiar with Tower controllers and Ground controllers. But the cast is much larger than that. Here’s a guide to keep them straight." - From AVweb - TOWER Staff POSITIONS/Responsibilities are described Here

09/23/2023   I Lost My Logbook. What Now? - Answer from Meg at FLYING - "If you can't put your hands on your logbook, the FAA can help you reconstruct your hours and endorsements." Full article Here.

09/23/2023   Advanced Preflight After MaintenanceThe General Aviation Joint Safety Committee (GAJSC) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) have determined that a significant number of general aviation fatalities could be avoided if pilots were to conduct more thorough preflight inspections of aircraft that have just been returned to service. In-flight emergencies have been the direct result of maintenance personnel who have serviced or installed systems incorrectly. Learn what steps to take before your first flight after maintenance online at

09/22/2023   Braking Tactics - From Aviation Safety Magazine - "While conducting flight reviews and stage checks for students working toward various airman certificates, I'm finding pilots who do not have a strong understanding of the operation and limitations of light aircraft braking systems. I've also noticed many pilots misuse the brakes in landing and taxiing." Learn Important Braking Info Here.

09/20/2023   FAA Advisory Circular 90-110C, Service Provider Authorization Guidance for Public Performance Based Instrument Flight Procedures, was signed by Flight Standards Service (AFX-1). - This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for non-FAA Instrument Flight Procedure (IFP) developers to become authorized by the FAA to develop public performance based IFPs. This AC applies to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, parts 71, 73, 77, 91, 93, 95, 97, 121, 135, and 157.

09/20/2023   FAA Order 8260.3F*, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), was signed by Flight Standards Service (AFX-1). - This order prescribes standardized methods for designing and evaluating IFPs prescribed under Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 95 and part 97. It also contains design guidance related to other IFPs and Air Traffic Control (ATC) charts not specified under parts 95 or 97. It is to be used by all personnel responsible for the preparation, approval, and promulgation of IFPs. The criteria contained within this order are predicated on normal aircraft operations and performance. This order contains guidance that is pertinent to 14 CFR part 97.  - *Coordinated as FAA Order 8260.3E CHG RTD DP

09/18/2023   FAA’s MOSAIC Comment Window Is Soon Closing - This video details what you need to know about the FAA’s Modernization of Special Airworthiness Certification proposed regulation. - From Flying - "I’ve studied this pretty closely—thanks so much to Roy Beisswenger, founder and proprietor of Easy Flight, for his effort to make a (VIDEO) study guide. This is not an easy read, but it has much we want plus a few things we question or want changed. - If you want some part changed, you have to comment. The FAA’s comment period for the MOSAIC Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) will close on October  23.

09/17/2023   CALIFORNIA CITY COUNCIL OVERREACH PROMPTS PUSHBACK FROM AVIATION GROUPS - NEWS - From AOPA - "A staunch legal warning was submitted to the city of Torrance, California, after the city council voted to prohibit many forms of aeronautical activity around Zamperini Field on the sole basis of noise control. AOPA views this action as a clear legal violation of federal law, as Title 49 of the United States Code grants the FAA “exclusive sovereignty of airspace of the United States.” - " letter in response to the action was submitted to the city on September 8 by AOPA in collaboration with NATA (until recently known as the National Air Transportation Association), Helicopter Association International, General Aviation Manufacturers Association, and the National Business Aviation Association. Citing numerous sources of case law, the collective organizations made it clear that the council’s decision to prohibit aeronautical activity cannot stand against federal preemption and should be withdrawn." - Full Story Here.

09/13/2013   FAA Revises UAS Safety Risk Managment Policy - NEWS - From AINonline - "Agency is trying to stay ahead of drone technology. - The FAA has revised its national policy order that manages applicants’ requests to operate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and how safety risk management (SRM) assessments are performed. It also defines the roles of agency personnel responsible for UAS safety management and includes an outline for documenting the steps in the SRM program. Additionally, the order describes the duties of the FAA’s air traffic organization (ATO) when handling waivers." Full Story Here.

09/13/2023   Ph.D. Meteorologist Documents Impact Of Global Warming On Turbulence - From AVweb - "At a meeting of the American Meteorological Society earlier this year, a U.K. professor warned that 2023’s historically strong El Niño could powerfully affect aviation with increased clear air turbulence (CAT). Paul Williams is an Oxford-educated Ph.D.-level meteorologist who currently heads up a group of 30 atmospheric scientists at the University of Reading in the U.K. According to his bio, Williams’s work focuses on “atmospheric turbulence, jet streams, fluid dynamics, numerical modeling, and climate change, with a focus on weather-sensitive applications, including aviation.”  Details Here.

09/13/2023   Alarming Rise in Near Misses Among U.S. Airlines - NY TIMES REPORT Comments - "Recent incidents have thrust the safety of air travel in the U.S. into the spotlight. An investigation by The New York Times has revealed a disconcerting number of close calls in the skies and runways of the country, even though the U.S. has not experienced any major plane crashes in over a decade."  Read More.

09/13/2023    AI Will Be “Everywhere” in Aviation, American Airlines Official Says - INFO - From Aviation Today - "American Airlines has pilot programs for introducing AI and machine learning—a similar, but slightly different type of automated computer program—into almost every element of its operations, Tassio Carvalho said at the Connected Aviation Intelligence Summit."  Continue Reading Here.

09/11/2023    Advanced Preflight After Maintenance - SAFETY NEWS From FAA - Did you know that maintenance-related problems are one of the deadliest causes of accidents in general aviation? - Contributing to this is a pilot’s failure to identify maintenance discrepancies because of a lack of knowledge and improper techniques used during the preflight of the aircraft. Read More on the FAA Blog - HERE -  Advanced Preflight After Maintenance VIDEO - Here  - Prefflight Inspection After Maintenance VIDEO - Here.

09/11/2023  How Can dBZ Values Be Negative? - Wx INFO - From Flying - "Question: On some NEXRAD images, I sometimes see a negative value for dBZ (decibel related to Z) for the reflectivity. How can these values be negative? - Answer: Of all of the weather guidance available to pilots prior to a flight, the images produced by the NWS WSR-88D NEXRAD Doppler radars are likely the most widely used in the U.S. These images have an extremely high..."  Finish Reading Here.

09/11/2023    FAA EASES BURDEN FOR MANY PILOTS WITH ADHD HISTORY - MED INFO From AOPA -  AVIATION MEDICAL EXAMINERS RECEIVE NEW GUIDANCE - "A recent change to the FAA policy regarding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will ease the medical certification burden for many pilots with a history that includes this diagnosis. - The new guidance from the FAA to aviation medical examiners now identifies certain histories of..."   Continue Here.

09/08/2023   Maintaining Out-of-Production Aircraft - Here's what to do when the manufacturer of your airplane closes its doors. - From Flying - "Someday, you may need a plan for the day you learn that your airplane manufacturer closes the doors for good. While it is doubtful the Textron Aviations of the world will shutter, other platforms are not so lucky. The trouble is you still have to maintain “in accordance with.” The truth is that some older aircraft are super cool, and it seems an absolute shame to grind them up for scrap when they operate perfectly fine. - If you love your airplane, you should be able to continue operating it. The good news is, you can. "  Learn About it Here.

09/08/2023   The Top Three Ways Our Engines Fail - SAFETY - From Aviation Safety Magazine - "This really isn't rocket science, but failure of a well-maintained engine often can be traced to the pilot."  Learn by Reading Here.

09/08/2023   The September/October 2023 issue of FAA Safety Briefing magazine focuses on aspiring aviators and airmen-in-training. - FAA SAFETY BRIEFING -  DOWNLOAD the MAGAZINE HERE.

Feature articles provide an update on the Airman Certification Standards (ACS), explore the important role of the FAA’s Compliance Program, and offer a personal account of an airmen’s pathway to a private pilot certificate.

09/08/2023   San Diego Air & Space Museum opens hands-on learning center - NEWS From KPBS - "Space explorers of all ages can now head to the San Diego Air & Space Museum in Balboa Park to experience Moon Base San Diego, an activity and education center, museum officials announced Tuesday. - "Moon Base San Diego is a one-of-a-kind experience offering explorers of all ages the opportunity to learn what it takes to live, learn and perform experiments on the moon without ever leaving planet Earth," museum President and CEO Jim Kidrick said. - "We re-imagined Moon Base San Diego to make it interactive, educational, and most importantly fun for adventurers seeking a truly unique and immersive experience right here in their own backyard." Read about it Here.

09/08/2023   PITCH AND POWER - ENERGY MANAGEMENT IS KEY TO MASTERY OF FLIGHT - PILOT FLIGHT INFO - From AOPA - "Aerobatic routines are fun to watch, and my favorite performers use aircraft with a low power-to-weight ratio that are representative of the general aviation fleet. - The late great Bob Hoover demonstrated mastery of flight as he gracefully flew stock aircraft, often with engines shut down and no power to assist. While the rest of us may never learn to fly like Hoover, we can aspire to understand energy management as he did. - As a designated examiner, many of the issues I see on practical exams emanate from poor energy management and a fundamental lack of understanding of proper corrective measures. It’s a topic that receives little to no attention in many..."  Continue Here.

09/08/2023   Flight Plan Follies - How do controllers get flight plans shipshape behind the scenes? Through basic housekeeping, creative workarounds, and the occasional resurrection. - PILOT INFO - From AVweb - "Unfortunately … occasionally … oversights happen, when a tower controller (Author points finger to self as a prior offender.) doesn’t realize that a flight has already timed out, and he clears the aircraft for takeoff. One of the crappiest things you can experience as a controller is when a flight departs and squawks the correct code but doesn’t properly acquire on your radar. You know you’re in for a bit of drama."  Full Article Here.

09/06/2023   SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: CONFUSION THAT KILLS - GO BEYOND THE TEXTBOOK—STAY ORIENTED WITH THIS SAFETY SPOTLIGHT - From AOPA - This safety spotlight explains what spatial disorientation is, how it happens, and how you can avoid its hazards—it also examines accidents where some pilots couldn’t escape spatial disorientation.

You’ll review:

  • The role of our sensory systems
  • Visual and vestibular illusions
  • Dangers of VFR flight into IMC
  • Potential hazards of night VFR flight into VMC
  • Why instrument flight into IMC is not immune
  • Inadvertent IMC encounter strategies
  • Spatial disorientation recovery

Certificate of Completion available - Learn More Here.

09/06/2023   FAA Advances On Controller-Pilot Datalink Availability - NEWS - From AVweb - "The National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) has announced that the FAA recently made permanent its plan to enable business aircraft operators to participate in enroute controller-pilot datalink communications (CPDLC). The announcement came just a month after NBAA and the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) petitioned the FAA to act on the issue for the benefit of all appropriately equipped general aviation aircraft." Finish Reading Here.

09/06/2023    Airbus Wing of Tomorrow vs. Boeing Transonic Truss Braced Wing - NEWS - From - "In the ever-evolving world of aviation, manufacturers are constantly pushing the boundaries of innovation to create more efficient, eco-friendly, and high-performance aircraft. Two major players in this industry, Airbus and Boeing, have recently unveiled their respective advancements in wing technology: the Airbus “Wing of Tomorrow” and the Boeing “Transonic Truss Braced Wing.” These cutting-edge designs promise to..."  Continuing Reading Here.

09/06/2023    THE WEATHER IS CHANGING - REVAMPED AVIATIONWEATHER.GOV TO LAUNCH SOON - From AOPA - "In 2018, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Aviation Weather Center (AWC) website——averaged 130 million hits per day, which makes it arguably a very popular tool. The website has gained a following among aviators and meteorologists because it allows for a virtual review of any current or forecast weather condition in the United States. It is about to get an upgrade." Read About it Here.

09/05/2023   Ethanol Maker Says US ‘Green’ Jet Fuel Fate Hinges on Tax Policy - (Bloomberg) -- "US corn farmers and biofuel producers are poised to gain from turning ethanol into sustainable jet fuel — depending on how Washington writes the tax policy. - That’s the message from ethanol maker Green Plains Inc. Chief Executive Officer Todd Becker at a conference on sustainable aviation fuel, or SAF, in Minneapolis. Makers of crop-based biofuels are pushing the Biden administration to help them take full advantage of tax credits in the landmark Inflation Reduction Act. - The hurdle lies in disagreement on..."  Continue Here.

09/04/2023   uAvionix, Choctaw Nation Complete 1st BVLOS C-Band Drone Flights - The partners used uAvionix’s SkyLine software to command-and-control drones beyond the operator’s line of sight. NEWS - From Flying - "One of America’s oldest communities may be testing the newest mainstay in U.S. drone operations. The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) and partner uAvionix, which provides avionics and services for the general aviation, defense, and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) industries, on Tuesday announced they had completed the nation’s first beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) drone flights using aviation-protected C-Band radio. That’s a big deal, because the Federal Communications Commission has proposed...  - Finish Reading Here.

09/04/2023   A MERICAN HEROES AIR SHOW - Scheduled to land Saturday, NOV 4, 2023, at the Hansen Dam Sports Complex in the heart of the San Fernando Valley, the admission-free American Heroes Air Show is now in sight & we invite your team to join us. Produced by volunteers with a passion for aviation and public service since 1993, the AHAS is the nation’s premier admission-free, helicopter - only aviation experience designed to profile helicopters’ unique value to the community, media and public officials with static displays & exciting flight demonstrations.

Our volunteer team would like to reach out and thank the awesome number of Non-profits, Community Service Organizations / CSO’s and recruiting teams who have already registered to join us when this admission-free, helicopter-only aviation experience returns to the Hansen Dam Sports Complex on Saturday, NOV 4th, 2023.

The AMERICAN HEROES Air Show has been a SoCal favorite since our first event at Santa Monica Airport in 1993.   Deterred only by Covid and CARMAGGEDON, the HEROES air Show has made Hansen Dam its annual event home since 1996.   You can learn more about this unique event at our:

HEROES Air Show 2022 Event Yearbook

FIRST LIGHT profile vid

Our new RECRUITING GURUS video from the 2022 event

We encourage our participants to share this event information and invite your members, families and readers to join us on NOV 4 and meet the HEROES The community can really look up to … - Please feel free to contact us with any questions at

09/03/2023   Parallel, Teardrop, Direct, huh? - FLIGHT TIPS From AVIATION SAFETY Magazine - "Sometimes holding is a necessary evil, but many instrument pilots secretly quake at the thought of trying to figure out whether a teardrop, parallel or direct entry is best and then dusting off the memory of how to actually execute them"  Read More Here.

09/03/2023   FAA Concerned Lightning Could Cause 777 Explosions - SAFETY From AVweb - "The FAA has issued an update to an AD on hundreds of Boeing 777s because it’s concerned they might explode if struck by lightning. The AD was issued this week to update earlier action to address cracks in wing chords. When it reviewed the wing problems, the agency discovered that there were errors in the AD relating to the replacement of cap seals on fasteners in a section of the wing that penetrates the center fuel tank. - “If these seals are not replaced properly, and the associated fastener has poor electrical bonding..."  Continue Reading Here.

09/03/2023   Math 101 for Pilots - PILOT HELP From Flying - "From calculating the reciprocal course to stabilized descents, here's a primer of basic mathematics pilots need to know." Continue Here.

09/02/2023  Don’t Let Distractions Become Deadly - Fly the Aircraft First - #FlySafe GA Safety Enhancement Topic - "NTSB accident data suggests that pilots who are distracted by less essential tasks can lose control of their aircraft and crash. In light of this, pilots are reminded to maintain aircraft control at all times. This may mean a delay in responding to ATC communications and passenger requests, or not responding at all unless positive aircraft control can be maintained throughout. In other words... "  Learn More Here

09/02/2023   The Epitome of Cool - Turbochargers boost power within safe limits—as long as you treat them with care. Mechanical Info - From Flying -"The components of an aircraft turbocharging system are the turbocharger, throttle body, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, air intake, wastegate, and exhaust. The turbocharger assembly has three main components: the turbine that receives gases from the exhaust, the compressor that takes intake air, compresses it and drives that into the cylinder—and a shaft connecting the two. The turbine is the driving force behind the turbocharging system. Exhaust gas from the manifold causes it to spin; this is the residual that bypasses the wastegate. Connecting the turbine and the compressor is the turbine shaft. This solid metal connector ensures the compressor spins as the turbine spools up. Turbocharger shafts require..."  A lot of Info Here.

09/02/2023   What Does It Take to Become an A&P? - "There are multiple pathways to what can be a challenging and rewarding career. - Editor’s Note: This story originally appeared on Plane & Pilot.  Have you ever thought about getting your A&P? Maybe you want to learn more about aircraft systems to become a better pilot. Perhaps you would like to save money doing maintenance on your own aircraft. Or maybe you’re looking for a career change or retirement job. Whatever the motivation, many pilots have considered getting their mechanic’s certificate but don’t know what is involved or how to begin. Getting your A&P just might be more accessible than you think."  Learn about it Here.

08/26/2023   Airframe Cracking? Drill It, Patch It Right - MAINTENANCE SAFETY - From AVweb - "On old aircraft it's inevitable that cracking will set in. Taming vibration and following the guidance in FAA AC 43.13-1B and the MX manual is a good plan. - During routine inspections, good technicians dig deep into the airframe looking for structural cracks. And if you’re doing even a causal preflight walkaround it’s not uncommon to find cracks around cowlings, windows and fairings. None of them should be ignored. - Surface cracking doesn’t usually mean a cowling or control surface will come..."  Continue Reading Here.

08/25/2023   CAUTION URGED ON DEVELOPMENT PLANS NEAR AIRPORTS - INFO - From AOPA - "Despite an abundance of pushback and risk, local governments that sponsor airports continue to make zoning and development plans that prioritize revenue over pilots and community members."  Read the Story Here.

08/25/2023   Stall Warning Systems - EDUCTION - From Aviation Safety Magazine - "They're fairly simple, but do have failure modes and should never be relied upon to keep you out of trouble." Continue Here.

08/23/2023   UAS Remote Identification - NEWS - INFO - From FAA - Beginning September 16, 2023, all drone pilots who are required to register their UAS must operate in accordance with the rule on Remote ID. Safety and security are top priorities for the FAA and Remote ID for drones is crucial to our integration efforts. - What is it? Remote ID is the ability of a drone in flight to provide identification and location information that can be received by other parties through a broadcast signal. - Why do we need it? - Read More and Learn How to do it Here.

08/22/2023   SAFO 23005, Recommended Procedures for Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Partial Re-route Clearances (Revised Initial UM79 uplink message), is now published. - The SAFO can be viewed by downloading the attached .pdf files or by clicking on the following link,    Download the .pdf file by clicking:  SAFO23005.pdf

08/22/2023   Waiver to Order 8260.58, United States Standard for Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Instrument Procedure Design, on Appendix C PBN Transition to ILS/GLS/LPV Final.  -  Memorandum - From Eric S. Parker, Acting Manager, Flight Technologies and Procedures Division -

This memorandum waives FAA Order 8260.58, United States Standard for Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Instrument Procedure Design, Appendix C, paragraph 2.a.(1), for procedures that meet all of the following guidelines:

1. The final approach segment length is no longer than 37,400 feet.
2. The glidepath angle is 3.00 degrees or more.
3. The Threshold Crossing Height is between 40 feet and 60 feet.
4. No PBN segment/s intersect the final approach course extended closer than
12,300 feet plus Distance to Turn Anticipation (DTA) from the PFAF.

This memorandum remains in effect until rescinded. Please direct all inquiries to the Flight Procedures and Airspace Group, Standards Section at 405-954-1139 or

08/22/2023    Weather Accidents - SAFETY - From AVweb - Once again we return to the topic of weather accidents to analyze the mistakes others have made so we can we learn from their misfortune. - accidents still litter the NTSB records. You might ask yourself how this can still be a thing in this day and age. Well, we all know that meteorology is not an exact science. Still, given the right combination of factors and the human tendency to tune out of important information, we find that pilots still get themselves..."  Read the Full Article Here.

08/21/2023   CHARTING CHANGES HIGHLIGHT MOUNTAIN PASSES - FIRST CHECKPOINTS CHARTED IN ALASKA SET STAGE - NEWS - From AOPA - "Flying through mountain passes can be tricky, particularly when the weather keeps you below ridge tops and confined to lower terrain. To help with crossing mountainous areas, major passes are charted as a visual aid on sectional charts. Sometimes, however, the pass is buried deep in a mountain range, and navigating to the pass can be a challenge. - To improve situational awareness and increase safety, the FAA recently adopted a new policy allowing the use of VFR waypoints and checkpoints to help pilots find mountain passes. The first passes to reflect these charting elements are found in the Brooks Range in northern Alaska—however, this convention may also be applied in other parts of the country."  Find Out More Here.

08/21/2023   Waiver to FAA Order 8260.19, Flight Procedures and Airspace, STAR Termination Altitude - FAA Memorandum from Eric S. Parker, Acting Manager, Flight Technologies and Procedures Division - This memorandum waives the requirement of FAA Order 8260.19 paragraph 4-5-2.j for an altitude to be specified at the termination fix at the STAR termination point [see memo dated July 18, 2023, subject: Waiver to FAA Order 8260.3, paragraph 2‑2‑7.f(2)]. When no altitude is specified at that fix, the lowest altitude that will be assigned by air traffic control at the termination fix must be used for descent gradient and obstacle clearance calculations and noted in the Remarks section of Form 8260-17.1. Example: LOWEST ASSIGNED ATC ALTITUDE AT GIZMO, 3000. No additional waiver request action is required. Please direct all inquiries to the Flight Procedures and Airspace, Standards Section (405) 954-1139 or

08/20/2023   NASA, Sikorsky, and DARPA Develop Automation Software - NEWS - From Aviation Today - "Self-flying air taxis are emerging as game changers for the transportation of passengers and cargo. Autonomous aerial vehicles could redefine connectivity between urban hubs and rural areas. But for this futuristic vision to become a reality, safety is paramount.

NASA's Advanced Air Mobility researchers, stationed at the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, are spearheading the journey to this brave new world of aviation. Collaborating with Sikorsky and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), their mission is to develop and rigorously test automation software that is both safe and reliable for flight."  Read More Here.

08/20/2023  'THIS WAS THEIR ONLY LIFELINE' - HAWAII PILOTS ORGANIZE AIRLIFT TO FIRE-RAVAGED LAHAINA - From August 14, 2023 - Firefighters still worked to douse the vestiges of the firestorm that devastated the Hawaiian port town of Lahaina, leaving dozens of people dead or missing from the close-knit community on the west side of Maui, as general aviation pilots organized an airlift that provided some of the first relief to survivors in desperate need of food, water, and medicine." Read it Here.

08/20/2023   West Maui GA airlift; IMC escape; Seaplane safety - VIDEO - From AOPA - "General aviation pilots were among the first to reach fire-ravaged Lahaina, Hawaii. Also, escaping inadvertent entry to instrument conditions, and urging amphibian pilots to raise gear. (Image courtesy of Laurence Balter.)" Watch Ep. 45 >

08/20/2023   Hot Starts - VIDEO - From AOPA - "No matter what aircraft you fly, hot starts are possible. This AOPA Air Safety Institute video teaches techniques to handle them, and you may even pick up a little insight into the "why" behind the procedures." Watch the video >

08/18/2023   Going With the Flow - FLIGHT SAFETY - From Aviation Safety Magazine  - "Risk mitigation requires checklist discipline, an adding some flow procedures can help you trap configuration errors before they become something worse." Read it Here.

08/18/2023   Air Force Going Ahead With $235 Million Blended Wing Prototype - NEWS - From AVweb - "The Air Force has awarded aerospace startup JetZero a $235 million contract to build a piloted blended wing aircraft. In an announcement on Wednesday, the Air Force said it wants the full-sized prototype to finish flight testing by the end of 2027. “The effort aims to mature BWB technology and demonstrate its capabilities, giving the Department and commercial industry more options for future air platforms,” the Air Force said in a press release. The Air Force has a long history of..."  Continue Here.

08/16/2023   Maintenance, Paperwork And Checkrides - "It’s fair game for an examiner to dive into your knowledge of the aircraft’s airworthiness and maintenance status on your checkride. - When you present yourself to a designated pilot examiner (DPE) or an FAA employee for a checkride to add a new certificate or rating, both you and the aircraft are subject to closer inspection than you may be accustomed. Pilots aren’t expected to know the dry torque specification for an engine’s cylinder studs, but they definitely are expected to know how to check its oil level and know how to add more, if needed, of the correct type. What about a slack tire? Does the applicant know how to check it? Can the applicant legally add air to it, or even clean the windshield?

While it’s important to know basic things like fuel and oil specifications, it’s often more important to know where that information is and use it to answer the examiner’s questions." From AVweb - Learn a lot about this Here
08/14/2023   ADS-B WITH DIVERSITY REQUIRED IN CANADA CLASS A - MANDATE TO EXTEND TO CLASS B IN MAY - NEWS - Fro m AOPA - "Concerns voiced by aviation advocates including AOPA did not persuade the Canadian government to further delay a mandate for space-based ADS-B in Class A airspace effective August 10, though Nav Canada has established a process for aircraft not equipped with antenna diversity to request accommodation." Story Here.

08/11/2023   New Pilot Minute Video Covers Desert Survival - In the latest episode of the Pilot Minute video series, Federal Air Surgeon Dr. Susan Northrup outlines some important desert survival strategies and provides information on free post-crash training offered by the FAA’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. See the video here:

08/11/2023   Gravity is Undefeated - Pilots know that a plane's weight plays a crucial role in its performance, but that’s not always apparent to our passengers who might be more accustomed to packing a car until there’s no space left. Instead, pilots must carefully balance passengers, cargo, and fuel to ensure smooth takeoffs and landings. For more on the complexities of this important pre-flight process and how you and your flying companions can shed unnecessary weight for a smooth and safe journey, see the article “Gravity is Undefeated: Why Weight & Balance is Critical to Flight Safety” at in the July/Aug 2023 issue of FAA Safety Briefing. See our entire flying companion-themed issue at

08/11/2023   Trapped Into VFR - "VFR" SAFETY - Aviation Safety Magazine - "Three Piper Cherokee accidents highlight how VFR-into-IMC happens. A bit of preflight planning and enhanced awareness of the traps we often fly into can help." Three REAL Accidents - Continue Here.

08/11/2023   Version 2.0 of the Urban Air Mobility Concept of Operations - NEWS - From Aviation Today - "BALTIMORE, Maryland — One of the most interesting panel discussions that took place during the recent AAM Summit—presented by the FAA and AUVSI—revolved around the evolving landscape of urban air mobility (UAM). Central to the discourse was the significance of collecting pertinent data to facilitate the integration of new aerial vehicles into existing airspace systems.

A speaker from NASA emphasized the organization’s role in gathering data to aid both the FAA and the wider industry, underscoring the importance of preparedness to scale operations and make certification timelines more efficient. Industry participants shared insights from..."  Finish Reading Here.

08/09/2023   Discussion of Air Traffic Issues with REI & SBD 7-18-23 - Redlands Airport Association meets with SBD Tower - Discussion Notes - "Attendees: Phil Ensley (Redlands Airport Association), Ted Gablin (Redlands Airport Association), Mike Bunch (SBD Tower Manager), Larry Rice (REI CFI), Earl Schofield (REI CFI), Ken Laymon (REI Pilot), Cindy Gablin (Redlands Airport Association) - The main purpose of the meeting was to open communication between REI users and SBD air traffic controllers to see how we can best help each other with air traffic issues. The meeting was very informal and informational." Read the Meeting Notes Here.

08/06/2023   Industry Experts Weigh In On Equity, Safety, and Efficiency in Advanced Air Mobility - AAM INFO - From Aviation Today - "BALTIMORE, MarylandDelivery drones and passenger air taxis are set to take center stage in the advanced air mobility landscape. Yet, as we prepare for the next wave of advancements, pressing questions around equitable access are surfacing. At a panel discussion during the AAM Summit—presented by the FAA and AUVSI—speakers from NASA, UPS, and the Department of Transportation addressed the challenges of ensuring fair access to these emerging technologies.

Deputy Administrator at NASA, Pam Melroy; Vice President of Flight Operations and Safety at UPS, Houston Mills; and Undersecretary for Policy for the DOT, Carlos Monje, presented their insights on overcoming the equity barriers and paving the way for the widespread adoption and benefits of AAM."  -  Read the total account Here.

08/06/2023   Joby Q2 Net Loss Widens as eVTOL Manufacturer Gears Up for Certification - NEWS - From FLYING - "The company’s net loss skyrocketed, but its strong cash position and continued certification progress keep it on track for a 2025 launch. - Electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft manufacturer Joby Aviation is still losing millions in its pursuit of the country’s first eVTOL air taxi route, but its investments are beginning to pay off."  Continue Here.

08/01/2023   Carburetor Icing ALERT!  - Much has been published about carburetor icing and the use of carburetor heat. So why did a pilot fail the oral portion of a checkride due to a lack of understanding of carburetor icing? No, carburetor icing does not require OAT less than 32 degrees, and, no, carburetor heat is not exhaust air. The DPE mentioned that the same is found among applicants. Understand your assignment? Here’s a list of references:
• Advisory Circular 20‑113 "Pilot Precautions and Procedures to be Taken in
Preventing Aircraft Reciprocating Engine Induction System and Fuel System
Icing Problems,'' (10/22/1981, but is still active)
• Advisory Circular 20-73, “Aircraft Ice Protection” (4/21/71 but is still active)
• Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3C)
• AOPA Safety Briefing, “Combating Carb Ice”
• FAA Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin CE-09-35, “Carburetor Icing Prevention”
• Lycoming Service Instruction No. 1148C, “Use of Carburetor Heat Control”
• NTSB Safety Alert SA-029: “Engine Power Loss Due to Carburetor Icing”
• Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25C)
• Pilot’s Operating Handbook (for your aircraft)

Thanks to Long Beach Flying Club for this notice.

08/01/2023   ESA Taps Spire to Design Space-Based Aircraft Surveillance System - NEWS - From Aviation Today - "The European Space Agency (ESA) awarded Spire Global a contract to design an aircraft surveillance system. It is a 16 million euro phased contract for a project called EURIALO, which is mainly funded by the German Space Agency, DLR.

Spire will design a satellite constellation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) that would track aircraft by determining their exact position based on different times of arrivals of radio frequency (RF) signals. Under this contract, Spire would also launch a demonstration mission, and there is a potential opportunity to be selected to build out the full constellation. - ESA said that current surveillance systems use aircraft self-reported positions from GNSS satellites, and an additional solution will increase reliability and resiliency. - Spire has a newly established..."  Continual Here.

08/01/2023   Dark Side of Visual Approaches - ASRS DirectLine - Issue #3 1992 - "The Visual Trap" - By Perry Thomas -  "It is an anomaly that most air carrier companies do not allow their flight crews to cancel their IFR flight plan or fly on a VFR flight plan but do allow their flight crews to accept the visual approach. In accepting a visual approach, the pilot rejects the historic and hallowed protection of the air traffic control system and assumes the responsibility to "see and avoid" other traffic.

The controller statement "You are cleared for the visual approach" is a welcome pronouncement for flight crews. There is an anticipated lessening of the workload, a quicker and more relaxed end to the flight. Yet many of the reports received at the ASRS detail unexpected and unwanted occurrences for pilots flying the visual approach" -- such as the following wrong airport landing incident.

  • "The weather was scattered clouds, thirteen miles visibility. [The] First Officer was the pilot flying, and I was operating the radios."We were being vectored by Approach Control to the airport ... I was inside [the cockpit] tuning the radios when Approach asked if we had the airport in sight. I looked up and out the window and saw ... the airport slightly to our left. I asked [the] First Officer if he saw it and he said 'Yes.' I told Approach we had the airport in sight, and they cleared us for the visual...."Our position was such that we had to immediately configure for approach [and] landing. Our focus from that point was outside the cockpit. We ... were switched over to the Tower and cleared to land. We heard no more radio calls after that."On the landing roll it became obvious that something was not right. After some radio calls, we were informed that this airport was ... a few miles short of ... the intended point of landing."

Benefits of the Visual

Given the potential for error such as this wrong airport approach and landing, why conduct visual approaches at all? Who benefits from visual approaches? Well, there are advantages for flight crews and controllers alike.

When pilots cross-check the visual with available electronic navigation, there is often a reduction in the level of navigation effort required; in addition there is a greater degree of flexibility in the planning and execution of their approach. Tighter sequencing, and what is often a more direct route to the airport translates into a reduction in flight time and fuel burn. At smaller or more remote airports where "full" approaches would otherwise be conducted, these savings may be considerable.

For controllers, a visual approach is an essential tool in the effort to maximize traffic flow (especially at busier airports). Visual approaches dramatically reduce controller workload -- ATC's IFR separation requirements are eliminated and the pilot assumes the burden for maintaining adequate separation.

The "Dark" Side of the Visual

The visual approach, intended to benefit everyone, frequently results in pilots experiencing exactly the opposite effect. Visual approach incidents reported to the ASRS frequently cite confusion, with resultant stress on the flight crews. There are a variety of performance errors revealed in ASRS reports.

While I paint with a broad brush, bear in mind that my negative impressions of the numerous serious hazards inherent in the visual approach have been gathered from reading and analyzing hundreds of ASRS reports on visual approaches, where the results of the visual approach produced unwanted results.

The Wrong Objective

Many reports indicate that airports or runways are either misidentified, or in some cases, lost after initial (and correct) recognition.

  • "I called for slats, flaps, gear down, and landing check. While turning final for the runway, we both commented 'This isn't right,' at which time the Approach Controller called saying 'Pull up, you're looking at XXX [wrong airport].' "

And in another incident, the First Officer reports: "At 500 feet AGL the Captain realized we were lined up with the wrong runway. I called [out, saying] I was going around."


Too often the traffic that the flight crew agrees to follow cannot be identified. In some instances, the flight crew visually acquires the traffic, only to lose it through distraction or other problems.

  • "While we were on a right downwind ... Approach asked us if we had the air carrier widebody (which we were following), in sight. We answered that we did. After we turned onto a right base for Runway 24R, Approach changed our Runway to 24L. I subsequently put the new runway into the FMC and the ILS into the ... [navigation] radio. Approach then called out small commuter traffic which I acknowledged. I then asked the Captain where the widebody was because I had lost him in the ground clutter after tuning the ILS...."

Misidentification of the required traffic is also a problem, particularly at busier airports.

  • " ... [the Controller] asked us 'Do you have the ... [aircraft] ... at your 11 o'clock?' We responded we had the traffic. The traffic eventually passed our 9 o'clock. The Captain started his turn to base...."

Traffic that was following this reporter's flight queried the reporter's perceived early turn to base, and the reporter's error was then discovered:

  • " ... it's really easy to pick out the wrong aircraft like we did...."

Visual approaches to parallel runways are especially rich incident-producing events; it seems logical that it is more difficult to maintain visual contact with parallel traffic than traffic you may be following to a single runway. A constant flow of reports to ASRS on flawed visual approaches highlights the hazards of losing sight of close proximity traffic.

  • "As Captain, I had the airport in sight out the copilot's window as we were on base leg. As we approached downtown I overshot final, resulting in being lined up closer to the left runway than to the right runway. [The] Tower Controller advised we were encroaching on south complex airspace. He also advised we were close to another air carrier ... on final for the south complex. [The] Controller asked us if we had [the] air carrier ... in sight. We did not. In spite of good visibility, [the] air carrier [aircraft] was idfficult to see in the background of buildings. We had to transmit several times to the Controller in order to sight and identify the traffic."

And in another parallel approach incident ...

  • " ... Approach gave us our co-approach [traffic] ... on the Tiptoe visual (we were on the Quiet Bridge) at about 20 miles out. I clearly saw him and figured we would be landing approximately together, he on 28L and us on 28R! At about 3 miles to go to the high span, on course but high, Bay [Approach] switched us to Tower. I changed frequency, looked back out and our co-approach [traffic] ... was crossing my course 30 degrees off my heading, about 1,000 feet lower. He passed to our right. We stopped our descent and slowed to keep him in sight! He then wrapped it up in a left turn back to the [left] runway."

The reporter concludes with this admonishment:

"There is a time for basic airmanship and see and avoid -- it is all the time!"

Landing Without Clearance

Most incidents of landing without clearance reported to ASRS are out of visual approaches --flights touch down with their crews having neglected to request their landing clearance. Reporters often cite complacency as a factor; others point to changes or increases in workload.

  • "While on initial approach we were held at a high altitude longer than desirable. Due to the steep descent path required to successfully complete the approach, our workload was increased. Due to the increased demands on us -- because of the steep approach -- we failed to contact the tower before landing."

Too Quick Off the Mark

Flight crews may tend to "anticipate" a clearance when asked if they can accept a visual. Frequently reported are altitude deviations when the flight crew agreed they could accept a visual approach and then immediately started to descend -- before the controller said the magic words that cleared them for the visual approach.

  • "The First Officer was flying and overshot his turn to the radial -- which was our clearance. [The] Approach Controller asked if we had the airport in sight, to which I replied 'affirmative,' although the First Officer did not see it. (Emphasis added.) [The] Approach Controller then said, 'Cleared for the Quiet Bridge visual.' The First Officer keyed ... [on] the word 'visual,' and started descent while I was attempting to program the FMC for the approach. [The] Controller advised [us that] we had busted our altitude."

Misused Resources

Many incidents reported seem to indicate that flight crews are overly optimistic regarding their ability to see and identify traffic, airports and runways, and often reply inappropriately to the query "do you have ________ in sight?"

Electronic navigation is frequently ignored or abandoned.

  • "Making a visual approach, we were cleared to land on Runway 33L from our present position approximately 10 miles ENE [of the airport]. Despite having our NAVAIDS tuned and the HSI set for ILS Runway 33L approach, we set up on base and turned final for visual approach to Runway 33R."

It appears from what I read in ASRS reports, and from my own experience, that we all -- all categories of pilots -- have at one time or another (even frequently) succumbed to enticement, and accepted visual approaches when it was not timely or appropriate to do so. Why do otherwise sane and sensible pilots consistently fall into "The Visual Trap?"

I must conclude that the primary motivation, aside from the desire of the flight crew to cooperate with the ATC system and the controller in expediting other traffic, is to expedite arrival of their own particular flight.

Keeping the Objective in Sight

One of our better ways of learning how to stay alive in the flying game is to profit from the unhappy experience of others. Here are a few practical, no-nonsense suggestions from these same reports that should reduce some of the hazards.

For All Approaches

  1. Review and brief all applicable visual and instrument charts before the approach;
  2. DO NOT identify traffic in sight, airport in sight, or runway in sight, unless you are certain of your identification, and your flight deck mates concur;
  3. Keep your traffic in sight; if you lose your traffic, tell ATC;
  4. Ensure that at least one pilot monitors the gauges and radios to "aviate, navigate, and communicate;"
  5. Use all available electronic navigation to back-up the visual;
  6. If visual approaches are being conducted but you don't want a visual, insist on an ILS or other instrument approach. Bear in mind, however, that during your instrument approach, other aircraft in your proximity may be conducting a visual approach;
  7. Expect visibility to deteriorate and be reduced if you are descending into a smog/haze layer, (and possibly the setting or rising sun), during the turn to base and final. This may lead you to misidentify the runway to which you are cleared.

For Parallel Approaches

  1. Be aware that parallel runway approaches means that there is likely to be other traffic close at hand. There may be a significant increase in flight deck workload -- unless the flight crew briefs and prepares themselves to the maximum extent possible. Safety in visuals will be enhanced by close coordination between flight crew members, and by maintaining a careful traffic watch outside the aircraft;
  2. Beware of overshooting runway alignment and encroaching into the parallel runway's approach path;
  3. Beware the dangers of "The Visual Trap."


In putting together, the information for this article, I have borrowed extensively from Captain William P. Monan's NASA Contractor Report (Number 166573) entitled "Cleared for the Visual Approach -- Human Factors in Air Carrier Operations." Captain Monan's report covers all aspects, pro and con, of visual approaches and it should be required reading for all thoughtful pilots who may be concerned about visual approaches."

08/01/2023   Spot Emergency Satellite Comms Claim 9,400 Saves Over 15 Years - Safety Info & PR - From AVweb - "Flying light airplanes can easily take you outside of cellphone range, especially for pilots who fly in backcountry environments. A forced landing, even if successful, could leave you out of touch and with no good way to call for assistance. That can be deadly if the pilot or a passenger is injured. - As part of the Globalstar satellite network corporate family, a Spot tracking and/or messaging device can be a lifesaver. Continue Here.